Ventricular Arrhythmias in Cardiac Amyloidosis: A Review of Current Literature

Khanna, Shaun and Lo, Phillip and Cho, Kenneth and Subbiah, Rajesh (2020) Ventricular Arrhythmias in Cardiac Amyloidosis: A Review of Current Literature. Clinical Medicine Insights: Cardiology, 14. p. 117954682096305. ISSN 1179-5468

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Cardiac Amyloidosis is an infiltrative cardiomyopathy which occurs secondary to deposition of mis-folded protein in the myocardium, with the two most common subtypes being AL amyloidosis and TTR amyloidosis. The pathogenesis of the disease is multifaceted and involves a variety of mechanisms including an inflammatory response cascade, oxidative stress and subsequent separation of myocyte fibrils. Cardiac Amyloidosis frequently results in congestive cardiac failure and arrhythmias, from a disruption in cardiac substrate with subsequent electro-mechanical remodelling. Disease progression is usually demonstrated by development of progressive pump failure, which may be seen with a high arrhythmic burden, usually portending a poor prognosis. There is a paucity of literature on the clinical implications of ventricular arrhythmias in the context of cardiac amyloidosis. The important diagnostic investigations for these patients include transthoracic echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and an electrophysiology study. Whilst there are no robust management guidelines, studies have indicated benefits from contemporary pharmacological therapy and case-by-case catheter ablation. There are novel directed therapies available for TTR amyloidosis that have shown to improve overall survival. The role of ICD therapy in cardiac amyloidosis is controversial, with benefits seen predominantly in early phases of the disease process. The only definitive surgical therapy includes heart transplantation, but is largely indicated for progressive decompensated heart failure (Figure 1). Further large-scale studies are required to better outline management paradigms for treating ventricular arrhythmias in cardiac amyloidosis.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Depositing User: Repository Administrator
Date Deposited: 15 Oct 2021 00:10
Last Modified: 15 Oct 2021 00:10

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